In biblical times, people were married in early youth, and marriages were usually contracted within the narrow circle of the clan and the family. It was undesirable to marry a woman from a foreign clan, lest she introduce foreign beliefs and practices.
Weddings are supposed to be meaningful, happy occasions, but what should be a time of excitement can often instead be a period of stress, especially when realizing that organizing the rituals and ceremonies is more complicated than you thought. By understanding these practices, you can infuse more meaning into each step along the way. Here is a list of common rituals you’ll find at a traditional Jewish wedding. While these traditions may look the same for everyone, feel free to be creative and discuss ways in which you can personalize them and make them your own.
What is a Jewish Wedding?
A traditional Jewish wedding is a tapestry woven from many threads: biblical, historical, mystical, cultural and legal. Threads carried from one generation to the next, forming a chain of Jewish continuity which goes back more than 3,800 years. On the cosmic level, our sages teach that each marriage ceremony is a reenactment of the marriage between G‑d and the Jewish people that took place at Mount Sinai and that the wedding day is a personal Yom Kippur—the holiest and most auspicious day of one's life.
Whether you're the bride or groom or a family member, remember to enjoy and celebrate this joyous occasion, and the beautiful union it creates. It's a special Mitzvah to dance and make the bride and groom happy on their wedding day.
Jewish wedding traditions are heavily rooted in the Judaic faith with a variety of customs incorporated into marital traditions. However, wedding traditions will differ based on Jewish denomination (Orthodox, Reform, and Conservative).
Orthodox Jews hold most closely to traditional beliefs and practices. Reform Jews comprise the largest proportion of Jews in the United States and reject many of the "outdated" practices of Orthodoxy. Conservative Jews follow a "middle ground" between Orthodoxy and Reform, following some of the traditions that Reform Jews do not.
Traditionally, there are two stages to the Jewish wedding process, the erusin and the nissuin.
The Erusin is the period of betrothal when the groom presents the bride with an object of significant value, most commonly a ring. However, more traditional Jewish sects believe the bride should not receive a ring until the actual marriage ceremony. Nonetheless, the groom’s gift signifies his intent to seek and create a marriage.
Nissan is the Jewish marriage ceremony that holds many unique traditions. The ceremony is comprised of two major components: the proceedings under the chuppah (equivalent to an altar) and yichud (the couple's alone time in a room immediately following the ceremony). The more traditional Jewish sects consider the yichud to be essential to completing the marital process. Furthermore, the ceremony may be held in a variety of locations, including a synagogue, private residence, etc.
Setting a Date
Choosing a wedding date for a Jewish couple can be a bit tricky since they must accommodate the Jewish lunar calendar and its religious observances. For instance, Jewish weddings cannot take place on:
- the Sabbath (sundown Friday to sundown Saturday
- other holidays, such as Yom Kippur, Rosh Hashanah, Passover, Shavuot, etc.
- the three weeks between the seventeenth of Tamus and the ninth of Av (commemorating the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem)
- the Omer period (between Passover and Shavuot)
- a period of mourning for an immediate family member
Since the Jewish calendar is lunar, these religious observances fall on different dates every year, making it essential for the bride and groom to meet with a rabbi to choose their date.
Once a date has been chosen, the time of day for the wedding is mostly up to the couple. Sundays are most popular since most people are off of work, but a wedding may also occur on a Saturday 1.5 hours post-sunset.
Fun fact: Traditional Jewish wedding invitations present text in both Hebrew and English. Additionally, they do not "request the honour of your presence," but rather, ask guests to "dance at," "celebrate," or "share in the joy of" the couple's wedding.
Stages of Jewish Wedding
Kabbalat Panim—The Pre-Wedding Reception
The Jewish wedding traditionally begins with a special "Kabbalat panim"—reception—in honour of the bride and groom. Our sages tell us that on their wedding day, the bridegroom is like a king and the bride is like a queen. Special powers are granted to them from On High; they are made sovereign over their own lives and over their surroundings. All their previous sins and failings are forgiven, and they are empowered to chart a new future for themselves and bestow blessing and grace to their loved ones and friends. It is to honour their special status that we hold a reception for them, as for visiting royalty.
Two separate receptions are held (usually in adjacent rooms) one for the bride and another for the groom. By tradition, the bride and groom refrain from seeing each other for a full week prior to their wedding, so as to increase their love and yearning for each other, and their subsequent joy in each other at their wedding. They will meet again only at the badeken (veiling ceremony) that follows the reception.
The bride sits on a distinctive, ornate throne-like chair. Her friends and family approach, wish Mazal Tov and offer their heartfelt wishes and words of encouragement. At the groom's reception, songs are sung, and words of Torah are often delivered. Hors d'oeuvres, light refreshments, and l'chaims are served at both receptions.
In many communities, this occasion is used to complete and sign two of the wedding documents: the tenai'm ("engagement" contract) and the ketubah (marriage contract). After the reading of the tena'im, the mothers of the bride and groom break a china or glass plate, to the joyous shouts of Mazal Tov!
Badeken—Veiling the Bride
After the Kabbalat panim receptions come to the badeken, the veiling ceremony, a procession headed by the groom goes to the bridal reception room, where the groom covers the bride's face with a veil.
The custom of covering the bride's face with a veil originated with our matriarch Rebecca, who covered her face when meeting her groom, Isaac.
The veil emphasizes that the groom is not solely interested in the bride's external beauty, which fades with time, but rather in her inner beauty which she will never lose. It also emphasizes the innate modesty that is a hallmark of the Jewish woman. The bride's face remains veiled for the duration of the chuppah ceremony, affording her privacy at this holy time.
After the groom veils the bride, the parents of the bride and groom approach the bride and bless her. The groom's entourage then retreats from the room. The bride and groom proceed with their chuppah preparations, and everyone else continues to the site of the chuppah, the marriage canopy.
The chuppah—Marriage Canopy
The chuppah is a canopy which sits atop four poles and is usually ornately decorated. The marriage ceremony takes place beneath this canopy which is open on all sides. This is a demonstration of the couple's commitment to establishing a home which will always be open to guests, as was the tent of Abraham and Sarah.
Many have the custom for the chuppah to be held beneath the open skies. This recalls G‑d's blessing to Abraham that his descendants be as numerous as the stars. Furthermore, a chuppah held under the open heavens symbolizes the couple's resolve to establish a household which will be dominated by "heavenly" and spiritual ideals.
An air of solemnity traditionally characterizes the chuppah ceremony. Brides and grooms shedding copious tears are a common sight at traditional Jewish weddings. This is due to an acute awareness of the awe and magnitude of the moment.
It is customary in certain communities for the groom to wear a kittel, a long white frock, during the chuppah. The pristine white kittel, traditionally worn on Yom Kippur, and the bride's white gown, are symbols of G‑d's atonement and perfect purity.
Indeed, the Shechinah, Divine Presence, graces the presence of every chuppah ceremony. Joining also, are the deceased parents, grandparents and great-grandparents of the bride and groom, who descend from their heavenly abode to join the wedding celebration. The assembled audience is expected to demonstrate appropriate consideration for this holy occasion.
The Wedding Procession
An entourage always escorts royalty; on the day when they are likened to king and queen, the bride and groom are accompanied to the chuppah by escorts, a married couple, that serve as their personal "honour guards," usually the couple's married parents. Some have the custom for all the grandparents of the bride and groom to join the entourage as well.
The escorts lock elbows with the bride and groom while leading them to the chuppah. All the escorts hold candles, symbolizing the fervent wish that the couple's life together is one of light and joy.
The groom is led to the chuppah first, where he awaits the arrival of his bride. Customarily, the band plays a slow-moving melody while the bride and groom walk down the aisle. In Ashkenazi communities, the bride circles the groom several times upon arriving at the chuppah. With these circles, the bride is creating an invisible wall around her husband; into which she will step—to the exclusion of all others.
Once the bride and groom are standing side-by-side under the chuppah, the cantor welcomes them on behalf of all gathered by singing several Hebrew greeting hymns, which also includes a request for G‑d's blessings for the new couple.
After all this preliminary activity, we are ready to begin the actual marriage ceremony.
According to Torah law, marriage is a two-step process. The first stage is called Kiddushin, loosely translated as "betrothal," and the second step is known as nisu'in, the finalization of the nuptials. Both Kiddushin and nisu'in are accomplished successively beneath the chuppah: the Kiddushin is effected when the groom gives the bride the wedding band, and the nisu'in through "chuppah"—the husband uniting with the wife under one roof for the sake of marriage.
Kiddushin means "sanctification"—signifying the uniqueness of the Jewish marriage where G‑d Himself dwells in the home, and the relationship is elevated to a new level of holiness.
The mitzvah of marriage is performed over a cup of wine. "Wine cheers man's heart," and there is no mitzvah which is more joyously celebrated than a wedding. The rabbi holds a cup of wine and recites the blessing over the wine and then the betrothal blessing, which thanks G‑d for sanctifying us with the mitzvah of betrothal before consummating the marriage. The groom and bride are given to sip from the cup.
Giving of the Ring
In Jewish law, a marriage becomes official when the groom gives an object of value to the bride, and this is traditionally done with a ring. The ring should be totally plain, without stones or marks â€• just as it is hoped that the marriage will be one of simple beauty.
The couple now exchange rings and declare their betrothal vows to each other. The words, “by this ring, you are consecrated to me according to the law of Moses and Israel” form the essence of the marriage service. The circle of the ring is a symbol of the eternal nature of the marriage covenant.
The groom then places the wedding band on the bride's finger. While putting the ring on her finger, the groom says: "With this ring, you are consecrated to me according to the law of Moses and Israel." Kosher witnesses must witness the betrothal in order to be valid.
The Ketubah—Marriage Contract
After the groom places the ring on the bride's finger, the ketubah, marriage contract, is read aloud. The ketubah shows that marriage is more than a physical and spiritual union; it is a legal and moral commitment as well. The ketubah details the husband's principal obligations to his wife to provide her with food, clothing and affection, along with other contractual obligations.
The ketubah document is reminiscent of the wedding between G‑d and Israel when Moses took the Torah, the "Book of the Covenant," and read it to the Jews prior to the "chuppah ceremony" at Mount Sinai. In the Torah, G‑d, the groom, undertakes to provide for all the physical and spiritual needs of His beloved bride. It is this precious "marriage contract" which has assured our survival through millennia which saw the disappearance of so many mighty nations and superpowers.
Reading the ketubah serves as a separation between the two phases of marriage—Kiddushin and nisu'in.
After the ketubah is read, it is handed to the groom who gives it to the bride.
Finalizing the Nuptials
We now proceed with the final stage of the marriage ceremony, the nisu'in, which is affected by the chuppah and the recitation of Sheva Brachot—the "Seven Benedictions."
It is customary to honour friends and relatives with the recitation of these blessings. The honorees approach and stand beneath the chuppah, where they are given the cup of wine which they hold while reciting the blessing.
The first blessing is the blessing on wine, and the remaining six are marriage-themed blessings, which include special blessings for the newlywed couple. The bride and groom once again sip from the wine in the cup.
At this point, the souls of the groom and the bride reunite to become one soul, as they were before they entered this world. Included in the Seven Benediction is the blessing to the bride and groom that they discover that same delight in one another that they knew in their pristine, primal state in the Garden of Eden.
A cup is then wrapped in a large cloth napkin, and placed beneath the foot of the groom. The groom stomps and shatters the glass. The shattering of the glass reminds us that even at the height of personal joy, we must, nevertheless, remember the destruction of Jerusalem, and yearn for our imminent return there. As the glass shatters, everyone traditionally shouts: "Mazal Tov!"
These sounds resound through the couple's married life. When your husband "breaks something" during your life together; when your wife "breaks something" in the years to follow, you too should shout, "Mazal Tov!" and say: "Thank you G‑d for giving me a real person in my life, not an angel; a mortal human being who is characterized by fluctuating moods, inconsistencies and flaws."
Immediately after the chuppah, the bride and groom adjourn to the yichud (seclusion) room, where they spend a few minutes alone.
After all the public pomp and ceremony, it is time for the bride and groom to share some private moments; the purpose of the entire ceremony! Even while surrounded by a crowd clamouring to shower them with love and attention, they must take a few moments to be there for each other. This is an important lesson for marriage—the couple should never allow the hustle and bustle of life to engulf them; they must always find private time for each other.
Inside the room, the couple traditionally breaks their wedding day fast. It is also a time when the bride and groom customarily exchange gifts.
While in the yichud room, it is customary for the bride to bless the groom. She says: "May you merit to have a long life and to unite with me in love from now until eternity. May I merit to dwell with you forever."
At Sephardic weddings, the newlywed couple customarily waits until after the wedding reception before entering the yichud room.
The Wedding Reception
Participating in a wedding feast and gladdening the hearts of the bride and groom on their special day is a great mitzvah. The Talmud relates that the greatest sages set aside their otherwise never-interrupted Torah study for the sake of entertaining a new couple with song and dance.
When the bride and groom emerge from the yichud room to join their guests, they are ceremoniously greeted with music, singing and dancing. The men with the groom, and the women with the bride, traditionally dance in separate circles; a mechitzah (divider) is placed between the men's and women's dancing circles. The singing and dancing, typically accompanied by juggling acts and other forms of amateur acrobatics and stunts performed in front of the bride and groom, continue throughout the reception.
A hallmark of the traditional Jewish wedding is that everyone is encouraged to participate in the dancing and merrymaking. Every Jew is seen as a part of the larger Jewish body, which includes every Jewish soul throughout the generations. A Jewish marriage, which creates a link between all the past generations and all the future generations, is therefore regarded as much more than a private milestone for the couple and their families; it is a historic and momentous event for the community at large.
After the first dance, the bride and groom take their seat at the head table alongside their parents, grandparents, the rabbi, and any other dignitaries in attendance. Traditionally, the groom recites the hamotzie blessing on oversized challah, which is then sliced and shared with the crowd.
Grace after Meals
The wedding meal is followed by the Grace after Meals and the recitation of the Sheva Brachot, the same seven blessings recited beneath the chuppah.
The seven blessings which draw Divine blessings for the duration of the couple's married life are recited over a cup of wine. There exists a deep mystical connection between wine and marriage.
Wine gladdens the heart. But in order to produce this heart-gladdening beverage, a grape must be crushed. Married life is full of crushing moments—the key is to overcome together those challenging occasions, which leads to new levels of love and happiness.
Before the Grace after Meals, two full cups of wine are prepared; one for the individual who leads the Grace, and the other for the Sheva Brachot blessings. After the grace is completed, six of the guests are invited to recite the first six blessings of the Sheva Brachot. Each of the honorees recites the blessing while sitting and holding the Sheva Brachot cup.
After the six blessings are recited, the person who led the Grace after Meals recites aloud the hagafen (wine) blessing and sips from his cup. The wine in the two cups are blended, and the groom sips from one cup and the bride from the other.
So there you have it — everything you need to know. I might just add that the spiritual significance of a Jewish wedding is sometimes lost in all the madness of putting it together. If there is one piece of advice, I will give every bride it would be to try to experience the pure and sacred side of a Jewish wedding as much as possible.
We hope you've enjoyed learning more about Jewish customs and celebrations, and we look forward to sharing more with you in the future!
Frequently Asked Questions
Bridesmaids. They walk down the aisle solo or in pairs. They take their places up front, on the left side, with the first bridesmaid taking her place farthest from the bride. The bridesmaids might form a diagonal line so they all get a good view of the couple.
“Well, the tradition comes from an era where women were the property of men,” she says. “Fathers walking their daughter down the aisle and giving their daughter, the bride, away represented a transfer of ownership from her father to her new husband.”
The bride takes her father's right arm, holds her bouquet in her left hand and the bridesmaids, flower girls and page boys take their places behind the bride in pairs, usually with the youngest directly behind the bride. ... The bridesmaids will take their place on the left side of the bride and be seated in the first row.